Ad Lucilium epistulae morales. Only 6 left in stock (more on the way). A cone-shaped fountain, resembling a turning-post (. Seneca: Epistulae Morales – Epistula 6 – Übersetzung. They are addressed to Lucilius, the then procurator of Sicily, who is known only through Seneca's writings. Fängt um genau zu sein bei "Inique enim se natura gessit" an und hört mit "sed pulchritudine animi corpus ornari"auf. The letters all start with the phrase "Seneca Lucilio suo salutem" ("Seneca greets his Lucilius") and end with the word "Vale" ("Farewell"). – A.D. 65) EPISTULAE MORALES AD LUCILIUM. Sicher ist, dass Seneca die Briefe als Mittel benutzte, um verschiedene Aspekte seiner Philosophie darzustellen. Great generals, when they see that their men are mutinous, check them by some sort of labour or keep them busy with small forays. , 13. Lucius Annaeus Seneca Epistulae morales ad Lucilium Briefe an Lucilius über Ethik Teil 1 Aus dem Lateinischen übersetzt von Heinz Gunermann, Franz Loretto und Rainer Rauthe Herausgegeben, kommentiert und mit einem Nachwort versehen von Marion Giebel Reclam  The epistolary genre was well-established in Seneca's time. 3. Seneca. "What then?" PLAY. So picture to yourself the assortment of sounds, which are strong enough to make me hate my very powers of hearing! Seneca, Lucius Annaeus, born at Corduba (Cordova) ca.  Even if both writers had access to the imperial mail service, a letter from central Italy to Sicily would have taken four to eight days to travel. An allusion to the Sirens and Ulysses, cf. Published by …  Seneca often says that he is writing in response to a letter from Lucilius, although there is unlikely to have been a strict back-and-forth exchange of letters. For I force my mind to concentrate, and keep it from straying to , Seneca frequently quotes Latin poets, especially Virgil, but also Ovid, Horace, and Lucretius. In den Briefen erteilt Seneca Ratschläge, wie Lucilius, von dem lange Zeit vermutet wurde, er wäre eine fiktive Gestalt, zu einem besseren Stoiker werden könnte. Gravity.  However, despite the careful literary crafting, there is no obvious reason to doubt that they are real letters.  Contra evenit in his morbis, quibus adficiuntur animi; quo quis peius se habet, minus sentit. ↑ The same story is told in Naturalis Quaestiones, iv. 9. Match. L. ANNAEVS SENECA (c. 4 B.C. things outside itself; all outdoors may be bedlam, provided that there is no disturbance within, provided that fear is not wrangling with desire in my breast, provided that meanness and lavishness are not at odds, one harassing the other. For Seneca in the Epistulae Morales Stoic philosophy is a form of mental discipline the practice of which will provide its practitioner with securitas, «freedom from care». LibriVox recording of Moral letters to Lucilius (Epistulae morales ad Lucilium) by Lucius Annaeus Seneca. Lucius Annaeus SENECA (4 BCE - 65), translated by August PAULY (1796 - 1845) and Adolf HAAKH (1851 - 1881) Epistulae morales ad Lucilium sind eine Sammlung von 124 Briefen.  Erasmus produced a much superior edition in 1529. Usher²: M. D. Usher, The Student’s Seneca, Oklahoma. Seneca Epistulae Morales: Letters LXVI-XCII v. 2 (Loeb Classical Library) Seneca Seneca. So with greed, ambition, and the other evils of the mind, – you may be sure that they do most harm when they are hidden behind a pretence of soundness. and lxxxv. The Letters were probably written in the last three years of Seneca's life. Epistulae morales ad Lucilium sind eine Sammlung von 124 Briefen. Flashcards. 5.0 out of 5 stars 4. And so with luxury, also, which sometimes seems to have departed, and then when we have made a profession of frugality, begins to fret us and, amid our economies, seeks the pleasures which we have merely left but not condemned.  Other chronologies are possible—in particular if letters 23 and 67 refer to the same spring, that can reduce the timescale by a full year. Sometimes quiet means disquiet.  He repeatedly refers to the brevity of life and the fleeting nature of time. E Wikisource < Epistulae morales ad Lucilium. you say, "is it not sometimes a simpler matter just to avoid the uproar?" You may therefore be sure that you are at peace with yourself, when no noise reaches you, when no word shakes you out of yourself, whether it be of flattery or of threat, or merely an empty sound buzzing about you with unmeaning din. There have been several full translations of the 124 letters ever since Thomas Lodge included a translation in his complete works of 1614. Christine Richardson-Hay, First Lessons: Book 1 of Seneca's 'Epistulae Morales', Peter Lang, 2006. 6. 7. It is the load that makes him afraid. Seneca: Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales Volume I, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Epistulae_Morales_ad_Lucilium&oldid=995971293, Philosophical works by Seneca the Younger, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Scholars generally agree that the letters are arranged in the order in which Seneca wrote them. Lateinischer Text: Deutsche Übersetzung: Seneca grüßt seinen Lucilius (Brief 6) Intellego, Lucili, non emendari me tantum sed transfigurari; nec hoc promitto iam aut spero, nihil in me superesse quod mutandum sit. I merely wished to test myself and to give myself practice. 4 B.C.-65 A.D. LVI. Learn. Bin echt dankbar für jede Hilfe!  4. London: Oxford University Press, 1965. The reason, you ask? Test. He complains that he has heard sounds, when he has not heard them at all. Moral letters to Lucilius by Seneca Letter 116. In these letters, Seneca gives Lucilius advice on how to become a more devoted Stoic.  Letter 91 refers to the great fire of Lugdunum (Lyon) that took place in the late summer of 64. Letter 117. 10. Cambridge. For if we have sincerely retired, and have sounded the signal for retreat, and have scorned outward attractions, then, as I remarked above, no outward thing will distract us; no music of men or of birds can interrupt good thoughts, when they have once become steadfast and sure. Get link; Facebook; Twitter; Pinterest; Email; Other Apps; Popular posts from this blog Rage against self, not others. Words seem to distract me more than noises; for words demand attention, but noises merely fill the ears and beat upon them. 6,1) Seneca beschreibt, was Philosophie bei ihm bewirkt. rpirone1831. Liber I: Liber II: Liber III: Liber IV: Liber V: Liber VI: Liber VII: Liber VIII: Liber IX The mind which starts at words or at chance sounds is unstable and has not yet withdrawn into itself; it contains within itself an element of anxiety and rooted fear, Richard M. Gummere. , Early letters often conclude with a maxim to meditate on, although this strategy is over by the thirtieth letter.  Letter 122 refers to the shrinking daylight hours of autumn. Real tranquillity is the state reached by an unperverted mind when it is relaxed. Epigr. On real ethics as superior to syllogistic subtleties ... ↑ For a discussion of ἀπάθεια see Epp. Fantham Created by. With an English translation by Richard M. Gummere by Seneca, Lucius Annaeus, ca.  He emphasizes the Stoic theme that virtue is the only true good and vice the only true evil. Furthermore, an intermittent noise upsets me more than a steady one. 6. The letters focus on many traditional themes of Stoic philosophy such as the contempt of death, the stout-heartedness of the sage, and virtue as the supreme good.  However since the fire of Lyon mentioned in letter 91 took place less than a year before Seneca's death (in spring 65) the number of missing letters is not thought to be very many. Second was the way Seneca, in complaining about philosophical logic-chopping, nevertheless filled his pages with much of that empty quibbling himself, in illustration - prompting Erasmus to second. Or perhaps I notice some lazy fellow, content with a cheap rubdown, and hear the crack of the pummeling hand on his shoulder, varying in sound according as the hand is laid on flat or hollow. We must therefore rouse ourselves to action and busy ourselves with interests that are good, as often as we are in the grasp of an uncontrollable sluggishness. 2. 2007: Inwood: Translated with commentary in Brad Inwood, Seneca: Selected Philosophical Letters (Clarendon Later Ancient Philosophers), Oxford University Press, 2007. A detailed commentary on Book 1 (epistulae 1-12) of Seneca's Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales, written in the last years (62-65 AD) of the philosopher's life. It is nowhere else related of the famous Stoic philosopher Chrysippus that he objected to the salutations of his friends; and, besides, the morning salutation was a Roman, not a Greek, custom. There have been many selected and abridged translations of Seneca's letters. 3 ff. Add to this the arresting of an occasional roysterer or pickpocket, the racket of the man who always likes to hear his own voice in the bathroom, or the enthusiast who plunges into the swimming-tank with unconscionable noise and splashing. For of what benefit is a quiet neighbourhood, if our emotions are in an uproar? When your strenuous gentleman, for example, is exercising himself by flourishing leaden weights; when he is working hard, or else pretends to be working hard, I can hear him grunt; and whenever he releases his imprisoned breath, I can hear him panting in wheezy and high-pitched tones. So you say: "What iron nerves or deadened ears, you must have, if your mind can hold out amid so many noises, so various and so discordant, when our friend Chrysippus is brought to his death by the continual good-morrows that greet him!" Lucius Annaeus SENECA (4 BCE - 65) Seneca is an important repository of Stoic doctrine. 1-2. His soul is in an uproar; it must be soothed, and its rebellious murmuring checked. Thirdly, Erasmus felt that the letters were more disguised essays than a real correspondence: "one misses in Seneca that quality that lends other letters their greatest charm, that is that they are a true reflection of a real situation".  Seneca also quotes Publilius Syrus, such as during the eighth letter, "On the Philosopher's Seclusion". Read in English by John Van Stan Seneca the Younger’s letters to his friend, Lucilius Junior, appear to have been written with a broad audience in mind. Letter 23 refers to a cold spring, presumably in 63. This is not true; for no real rest can be found when reason has not done the lulling. Farewell. (56,6) 'Omnia noctis erant placida composta quiete'. Cambridge. Nor Greeks, with crowded lines of infantry. Debilitatem nobis indixere deliciae, et quod diu noluimus posse desimus. L. Annaei Senecae Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales Selectae (1890) In den Briefen erteilt Seneca Ratschläge, wie Lucilius, von dem lange Zeit vermutet wurde, er wäre eine fiktive Gestalt, zu einem besseren Stoiker werden könnte. , Michel de Montaigne was influenced by his reading of Seneca's letters, and he modelled his Essays on them. Seneca on the Fear of Poverty in the Epistulae Morales. Seneca - Epistulae Morales Ad Lucilium - Liber Vi - 56: Brano visualizzato 21056 volte. Horace.  In many instances Seneca probably composed letters as a new subject occurred to him. Nam dormientium quoque insomnia tam turbulenta sunt quam dies: illa tranquillitas vera est, in quam bona mens explicatur. Think of the unfortunate man who courts sleep by surrendering his spacious mansion to silence, who, that his ear may be disturbed by no sound, bids the whole retinue of his slaves be quiet and that whoever approaches him shall walk on tiptoe; he tosses from this side to that and seeks a fitful slumber amid his frettings!  Seneca also uses a range of devices for particular effects, such as ironic parataxis, hypotactic periods, direct speech interventions and rhetorical techniques such as alliterations, chiasmus, polyptoton, paradoxes, antitheses, oxymoron, etymological figures and so forth.  Letter 67 refers to the end of a cold spring and is thought (to allow forty-three intervening letters) to have been written the following year. 15. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1917-1925. Both for my child and for the load I bear. Cloth, 40s. 12. Then the cake-seller with his varied cries, the sausageman, the confectioner, and all the vendors of food hawking their wares, each with his own distinctive intonation. Ecce undique me varius clamor circumsonat: supra ipsum balneum habito.  Aulus Gellius (mid-2nd-century) quotes an extract from the "twenty-second book", so some letters are missing. The work is also the source for the phrase non scholae sed vitae: "We do not learn for school, but for life". Others include letters on "the influence of the masses" and "how to deal with one's slaves". ix. , The oldest manuscripts of the letters date from the ninth-century. But by this time I have toughened my nerves against all that sort of thing, so that I can endure even a boatswain marking the time in high-pitched tones for his crew. II. At du slet ikke sørger, kan jeg ikke få mig til at kræve, selv om jeg ved, at det var det bedste. , Underlying a large number of the letters is a concern with death on the one hand (a central topic of Stoic philosophy, and one embodied in Seneca's observation that we are "dying every day") and suicide on the other, a key consideration given Seneca's deteriorating political position and the common use of forced suicide as a method of elimination of figures deemed oppositional to the Emperor's power and rule. Crepant aedificia, antequam corruant. For it is not because my ambition was rooted out that it has abated, but because it was wearied or perhaps even put out of temper by the failure of its plans.  For a long time the letters did not circulate together, letters 89–124 in particular appear in their own manuscripts. Richard M. Gummere. The letters often begin with an observation on daily life, and then proceed to an issue or principle abstracted from that observation. SENECA, EM., 44, 71. Areas of comment include vocabulary and style, personal allusions to Seneca, relevant issues of history and social environment, and the moral and philosophical concepts. L. Annaei Senecae Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales Selectae (1890) [Seneca, Lucius Annaeus, Hess, G.] on Amazon.com. Seneca. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Epistulae Morales Ad Lucilium - 053 (Erweckung durch die Philosophie) Epistulae Morales Ad Lucilium - 054 Epistulae Morales Ad Lucilium - 058, 22-24, gek. , Collectively the letters constitute Seneca's longest work. Text 56 (Sen.epist. I admit this. Beshrew me if I think anything more requisite than silence for a man who secludes himself in order to study! Lipsius, therefore, was probably right when he proposed to read here, for Chrysippus, Crispus, one of Seneca's friends; cf.  103,2/3) Tücken des Schicksals – Tücken, die vom Menschen ausgehen: Tempestas minatur, antequam surgat. Brauche die Übersetzung von Brief 66 von Seneca(Epistulae Morales) für eine schriftliche Hausaufgabe. Although they deal with Seneca's personal style of Stoic philosophy, they also give us valuable insights into daily life in ancient Rome. , Seneca's letters are focused on the inner-life, and the joy that comes from wisdom. , The language and style of the letters is quite varied, and this reflects the fact that they are a mixture of private conversation and literary fiction. May I die if silence is as necessary as it seems for a person set aside in study. Gummere.) Recent editions include: The tag Vita sine litteris mors ('Life without learning [is] death') is adapted from Epistle 82 (originally Otium sine litteris mors, 'Leisure without learning [is] death') and is the motto of Derby School and Derby Grammar School in England, Adelphi University, New York, and Manning's High School, Jamaica. The much occupied man has no time for wantonness, and it is an obvious commonplace that the evils of leisure can be shaken off by hard work. Seneca, Epistulae Morales 56. , The 124 letters are arranged in twenty manuscript volumes, but the collection is not complete. Seller Inventory # 106832265.201119. On self-control. The Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium (Latin for "Moral Letters to Lucilius"), also known as the Moral Epistles and Letters from a Stoic, is a collection of 124 letters that Seneca the Younger wrote at the end of his life, during his retirement, after he had worked for the Emperor Nero for more than ten years. In addition there are neologisms and hapax legomena. 8. SENECA LUCILIO SUO SALUTEM  Peream si est tam necessarium quam videtur silentium in studia seposito. Men think that we are in retirement, and yet we are not. Terms in this set (6) 1. peream si est tam necessarium quam videtur silentium in studia seposito. 4 BCE, of a prominent and wealthy family, spent an ailing childhood and youth at Rome in an aunt's care.He became famous in rhetoric, philosophy, money-making, and imperial service. Imagine what a variety of noises reverberates about my ears! Although people may often have thought that I sought seclusion because I was disgusted with politics and regretted my hapless and thankless position, yet, in the retreat to which apprehension and weariness have driven me, my ambition sometimes develops afresh. 52–6) to have been around spring of the year 62. For even when we seek slumber, our sleepless moments are as harassing as the daytime. Night brings our troubles to the light, rather than banishes them; it merely changes the form of our worries. 4 BCE, of a prominent and wealthy family, spent an ailing childhood and youth at Rome in an aunt's care.He became famous in rhetoric, philosophy, money-making, and imperial service. Senecas Epistulae Morales, 7. bog oversat af Kell Commerau Madsen og Hans Gregersen Seneca 63 1 Det gør mig ondt, at din ven Flaccus er gået bort, men jeg vil ikke have, at du sørger mere, end rimeligt er. and this makes one a prey to care, as our Vergil says: I, whom of yore no dart could cause to flee, SENECA LUCILIO SUO SALUTEM  A gestatione cum maxime venio, non minus fatigatus quam si tantum ambulassem quantum sedi; labor est enim et diu ferri, ac nescio an eo maior quia contra naturam est, quae pedes dedit ut per nos ambularemus, oculos ut per nos videremus.  Seneca refers to Cicero's letters to Atticus and the letters of Epicurus, and he was probably familiar with the letters of Plato and the epistles of Horace. Epistles, Volume III: Epistles 93-124: Letters XCIII-CXXIV v. 3 (Loeb Classical Library *CONTINS TO firstname.lastname@example.org) Seneca Seneca. This man in his second state lacks knowledge fearing for his own concerns, he pales at every sound; any cry is taken for the battle-shout and overthrows him; the slightest disturbance renders him breathless with fear.  The first printed edition appeared in 1475. 56 … £17.64. Marcus Aurelius 2.6. You need not suppose that the soul is at peace when the body is still.  Letter 18 was written in December, in the run-up to the Saturnalia. But I assure you that this racket means no more to me than the sound of waves or falling water; although you will remind me that a certain tribe once moved their city merely because they could not endure the din of a Nile cataract.  On average the letters tend to become longer over time, and the later letters focus increasingly on theoretical questions. Consulta qui la traduzione all'italiano di Paragrafo 57, Libro 6 dell'opera latina Epistulae morales ad Lucilium, di Seneca After some disgrace during Claudius' reign he became tutor and then, in 54 CE, advising minister to Nero, some of whose worst misdeeds he did not prevent. Indeed, the more stealthily it comes, the greater is its force. Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales, volume 1-3. et eius inconcussafiducia. Epistulae Morales 1 | Seneca | Buch | Comparative Pathobiology - Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education | Englisch. 1. 'Twas night, and all the world was lulled to rest.. More information about this seller | Contact this seller 3. Seneca the Younger, Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales, section 6. ↑ Frag. Text 1 (Sen.epist. Not merely by stopping their ears with wax, but also by bidding them row past the Sirens as quickly as possible.  Such maxims are typically drawn from Epicurus, but Seneca regards this as a beginner's technique. Seite 1 von 1 [ 3 Beiträge ] [phpBB Debug] ... Beitrag Verfasst: 08.06.2005, 16:03 . Falsum est: nulla placida est quies, nisi quam ratio composuit; nox exhibet molestiam, non tollit, et sollicitudines mutat. 1. Some of the letters include "On Noise" and "Asthma". STUDY. Lipsius, therefore, was probably right when he proposed to read here, for Chrysippus, Crispus, one of Seneca's friends; cf. His reputation, based on the ancient testimony, has remained ambiguous down to the present day: he was a Stoic hero who attempted to advise Nero, he was a dissolute hypocrite, he was a Christian saint. Epistulae morales ad Lucilium/Liber XIV - XV. Now shake at every sound, and fear the air, Regardless of how Seneca and Lucilius actually corresponded, it is clear that Seneca crafted the letters with a broad readership in mind. § 15 below. “talis animus virtus est.”  Seneca the Younger, Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales , section 7. Select anyone you please from among your favourites of Fortune, trailing their many responsibilities, carrying their many burdens, and you will behold a picture of Vergil's hero, "fearing both for his child and for the load he bears.". Epistulae Morales Seneca Minor. Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales, volume 1-3. I have lodgings right over a bathing establishment. Epistulae Morales Vol.  They began to be widely circulated together from the twelfth-century onwards. Besides all those whose voices, if nothing else, are good, imagine the hair-plucker with his penetrating, shrill voice, – for purposes of advertisement, – continually giving it vent and never holding his tongue except when he is plucking the armpits and making his victim yell instead. Accordingly, I shall change from my present quarters. xii+168; 5 plates. Seneca's Epistvlae Morales - L. D. Reynolds: The Medieval Tradition of Seneca's Letters. As an example, there is a mix of different vocabulary, incorporating technical terms (in fields such as medicine, law and navigation) as well as colloquial terms and philosophical ones. First was Seneca's habit of mixing personas in the work, running objections and refutations of objections together in a way that Erasmus found not illuminating but obfuscatory. Spell. Among the sounds that din round me without distracting, I include passing carriages, a machinist in the same block, a saw-sharpener near by, or some fellow who is demonstrating with little pipes and flutes at the Trickling Fountain, shouting rather than singing. Seneca's Epistulae morales by William Hardy Alexander, 1940, University of California press edition, in Latin Hardcover. The Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium (Latin for "Moral Letters to Lucilius"), also known as the Moral Epistles and Letters from a Stoic, is a collection of 124 letters that Seneca the Younger wrote at the end of his life, during his retirement, after he had worked for the Emperor Nero for more than ten years.  In letter 33 he stresses that the student must begin to make well-reasoned judgements independently. Seneca. Seneca, Lucius Annaeus, born at Corduba (Cordova) ca. 11. This man in his first state is wise; he blenches neither at the brandished spear, nor at the clashing armour of the serried foe, nor at the din of the stricken city. Why need I be tormented any longer, when Ulysses found so simple a cure for his comrades even against the songs of the Sirens?  14. 2 ff. 5. This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 21:11. There is a general tendency throughout the letters to open proceedings with an observation of a specific (and usually rather minor) incident, which then digresses to a far wider exploration of an issue or principle that is abstracted from it. https://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=Moral_letters_to_Lucilius/Letter_56&oldid=9247343, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Pp.  In one letter (letter 7), for instance, Seneca begins by discussing a chance visit to an arena where a gladiatorial combat to the death is being held; Seneca then questions the morality and ethics of such a spectacle, in what is the first record (to our current knowledge) of a pre-Christian writer bringing up such a debate on that particular matter. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1917-1925.  Although addressed to Lucilius, the letters take the form of open letters, and are clearly written with a wider readership in mind. ... SENECA LVCILIO SVO SALVTEM  Rem utilem desideras et ad sapientiam properanti necessariam, dividi philosophiam et ingens corpus eius in membra disponi; facilius enim per partes in cognitionem totius adducimur. 5. LV. Aeneas carries Anchises; the rich man carries his burden of wealth. June 06, 2020 All of us suffer reverses in life—some large, some small. Betreff des Beitrags: Seneca, Epistulae morales, 80 (1-5) Beitrag Verfasst: 11.09.2008, 12:46 Hallo, ich bräuchte bitte bald die Übersetzung zu folgendem Brief von Seneca . For all unconcealed vices are less serious; a disease also is farther on the road to being cured when it breaks forth from concealment and manifests its power. Latein  Epistulas ad me perferendas tradidisti, ut scribis, amico tuo; deinde admones me ne omnia cum eo ad te pertinentia communicem, quia non soleas ne ipse quidem id facere: ita eadem epistula illum et dixisti amicum et negasti. summa uitae beatae sit solida securitas. Publication date 1917 Publisher London Heinemann Collection robarts; toronto Digitizing sponsor University of Toronto Contributor Robarts - … 2.  However even in the later letters Seneca continues to include letters that are very short..  The letters were a principal source for Justus Lipsius for the development of his Neostoicism towards the end of the 16th-century.. This was especially true of poets, cf. The result is like a diary, or handbook of philosophical meditations. Epistulae morales ad Lucilium 1,3. After some disgrace during Claudius' reign he became tutor and then, in 54 CE, advising minister to Nero, some of whose worst misdeeds he did not prevent. (Translated by Richard M. Seneca. A fragment from the Argonautica of Varro Atacinus. Write. Dubio et incipiente morbo quaeritur nomen, qui ubi etiam talaria 356.1 coepit intendere et utrosque dextros 356.2 pedes fecit, necesse est podagram fateri. (hoffe, ihr könnt mir helfen)  In letter 8, Seneca alludes to his retirement from public life, which is thought (by reference to Tacitus Annals xiv. Title: Seneca, Epistulae Morales Author: Michael Hendry Last modified by: Michael Hendry Created Date: 8/19/2004 12:22:00 AM Company: The Podex Corporation Then, perhaps, a professional comes along, shouting out the score; that is the finishing touch. This page was last edited on 10 May 2019, at 12:09.